Creative Ways to Say "I Love You" Via Text


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Sometimes, the simplest things can be the hardest things to do. In fact, you could be looking at your phone right now, at his name on your list of contacts, wanting to send him a quick text of „I love you“ but realizing that maybe, just maybe „I love you“ sounds a little generic and you recall saying that a million times next week. The thing about romanticism is that it always has to feel new and inventive. While your beau will probably want to read your text thinking to himself, „Wow, this is so new and inventive“, he will probably smile brighter because of the effort you seem to put behind it. While men don’t always understand how much thought you put into something, they always appreciate your effort. Texting „I love you“ would be no different, so try a little harder to be different. Below are a few ways how.

1. Use Quotes Said By Others as a Way to Express Your Longing

The trick with quotes is that they can be tough to compress into the space of a text message. So, when finding a great longing quote, look for shorter ones to make them both short in length but sweet in words. It can be difficult to keep his attention long enough to make him read a quote that lasts well past two text messages, so length is important when dealing with this idea.

2. Incorporate the Fact that You Miss Your Love Through a List of „I Miss You’s“

The list of course cannot be texted all at one time, so try to text the list throughout the day, one „I miss you“ at a time. This idea works especially well for a couple who has been separated for a long period of time because the things that you miss will be much more appreciated, much more studied, much more remembered, and much more loved. Some examples may be:

  • I miss you swearing up and down that you aren’t ticklish, but laughing every time I touch you there
  • I miss you allowing to brush your hair sometimes, telling me it relaxes you
  • I miss you cooking for me when I’m too tired to think
  • I miss you laughing at jokes that aren’t funny, but jokes that make me laugh too

End With: I miss you.

3. Songs Are the Soundtrack of Your Life, They’re the Same Way With Love Too

Songs can be an easy way to connect and create words that you sometimes cannot say. By texting a favorite song or two, or a song that reminds you of him or her, can give them a chance to YouTube the song, listen to it, and realize why you fell in love with it. Try to do this every so often. The song can be one that expresses happiness, sadness, or one that reminds you of them. It could even be a song that the two of you enjoy together and can help them reminisce the moment that the two of you shared with that particular song.

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Source by Crystal C. Scott

Teaching English Grammar through Communicative Language Teaching Approach (CLTA) in the Context of Bangladesh


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Teaching English Grammar through Communicative Language Teaching Approach (CLTA) in the Context of Bangladesh.

Abstract

Communicative Language Teaching Approach is the most discussed of all language teaching-learning approaches in the last few decades. Many approaches are introduced, but these are rethought again and again whether a fusion is possible with CLTA. Any language without grammar can bring us back to the atavistic world of mere sounds and body language. This study aims at defining why and how grammar fits in CLTA in the perspective of Bangladesh.

Keywords

World Englishes, Grammar Translation Method (GT Method), Audio Lingual Method (ALM), Communicative Language Teaching Approach (CLTA), Language Competency.

Background of the Study

            Communicative Language Teaching Approach is the most talked approach in last few decades. Many approaches are introduced, but these are rethought again and again whether a fusion is possible with CLTA.  A language without grammar can bring the modern people to the atavistic world of mere sounds and body language (sarwar, 2011). For this reason, why and how grammar fits in CLTA is a concern of this study. Though Grammar as a method of language teaching-learning has been followed since the Greek and Latin period (B.Kachru, 2006, World Englishes), yet its definition is vast and dynamic. Depending on one’s theoretical orientation, different linguists define grammar differently according to their own way. Geoffrey Leech et al (1982) consider grammar as an important component that relates phonology and semantics, or sound and meaning. Hudson (1992) opines that grammar embraces any kind of information about words since there are no boundaries around grammar. Grammar as consisting of morphology and syntax was believed by Huddleston (1988). Cobbett (1984) defines grammar as constituting rules and principles that help a person to make use of words or manipulate and combine. H.W. Fowler(1983) states grammar as the branch that deals with a language’s inflexions, with its phonetic system, and with the arrangements of words in sentences, George Snell (1649) thinks that Grammarians through grammar are getting language to a ‘fixed and immutable state‘, James Barclay (1743) emphasizes on grammar claiming that writing will be improved with rules concerning the justness of expression…the force and harmony of certain phrases, the proper meaning of words, their connection one with another, and the necessary skill of placing them all in regular order (p-660). Rutheford (1987) defines grammar as „a necessary component of any language teaching programme“ (p.9), and thus, he further says that it plays an important role in language teaching. However, the focus on grammar in language teaching was challenged with the emergence of teaching methodologies based on different learning theories and in the context of socio-economic infrastructure of a country. Such a challenge influenced not only the content and the curriculum in language teaching of the particular context, but also the implication for teaching grammar. Undergraduate education of Bangladesh is no exception in this regard. So, a fresh and revised look at the role of grammar was necessary causing linguists and language educators to rethink the status and strategy of grammar in language teaching and learning. Thus, a constant debate is led among language educators and linguists regarding the nature and type of grammar instruction aiming at how second languages should be taught or learned.

     

The Problem to be addressed

In spite of a recent soaring interest in teacher’s belief in the systems of mainstream education studies, the beliefs of ESL teachers about grammar and the influence of such beliefs on their intentions, decisions and action in classroom practices remain relatively unexplored. The present study would seek to fill the knowledge gap left by insufficient researches in this area. More precisely, this study would investigate teachers and learners belief of grammar teaching and examine the congruence and incongruence of their beliefs with the classroom practices in undergraduate English in the context of Bangladesh. It would also examine the contextual existing and feasible factors that support and impede in materializing with a view to establishing the beliefs into practices, and the accommodative strategies teachers would adopt when coping with contextual constraints as undergraduate education is the most crucial junction in the context of Bangladeshi education system.

Considering various second language teaching methods, teaching grammar through Communicative Language Teaching Approach is the most talked. Though it may be assumed that the role played by the Grammar and the role of communicative language Teaching are the two opposite poles, but actually these comments are only misconceptions. Fusion of these two terms is needed for the better performances and from utilitarian point of view. Fusion of Grammar and CLT is to be rethought from Bangladeshi perspective in line with present world context.

Teaching grammar in the undergraduate level through appropriate language teaching approach in Bangladeshi perspective is to be re-considered as the students/learners learn grammar every year till their Higher Secondary level and read English as a compulsory subject in undergraduate syllabus of Bangladeshi Universities, they learn almost the same grammatical items every year, still they cannot use it properly and go for some commercial language canters to practice communications. If the grammar is taught with Communicative Language Teaching approaches (CLTA), they could straightly go to national and international job markets to prove their competency. Now to find out the possible ways to teach grammar through CLTA are to be defined in such a way that the language teachers can forget their traditional role of active instructor and educator, instead the students role have to be emphasized keeping in mind the classroom size in Bangladesh, teachers quality, salary, resource constraints, economic and infra-structural conditions, possibility of teachers training from appropriate CLT concept, tendency of changing syllabuses by the policy makers, learners age, interest, motivations, needs etc. in Bangladesh. Major role can be played by the Teachers of Bangladesh if they can come out from the traditional concept of teaching grammar as an instructor and become a Facilitator, a suitable role for Communicative Language Teaching Approach. Teachers can work in partnership with students and thus can help them in raising their language competency. Learning grammar, which has been an unpleasant and phoebia for the students since the teaching-learning English language has been started in Bangladesh. Van Ek (1975) stresses on ‘A teacher who is a facilitator tends to be more student-centered and less dominant in the classroom than in other approaches. The facilitator may also take the role of mentor or coach rather than director‘. The British Council (Campaign in Asian countries) identifies the need of functional syllabus based on ‘communicative acts such as making introductions, making requests, expressing opinions, requesting information, refusing, apologizing, giving advice, persuading‘  which  is often used in communicative language teaching. As teaching-learning of grammar to ESL/EFL learners is beyond question, and as it is to be done in an attractive and acceptable way remembering economical and infra-structural condition of Bangladesh as well as the class size, belief of teachers-students relationship, average facilities provided by Bangladeshi government and the educational institutions. The remarks of Finocchiaro and Brumfit (1983) regarding the CLT syllabus can be remembered and rethought.

a. Meaning (function) is emphasized

b. Contextualization is important

c. Language learning is learning to communicate

d. Language is created through repeated trials and errors

e. Fluency is primary whereas accuracy is secondary.

Wu (1998) suggests that structural activities in textbooks need to be supplemented by communicative activities. Accordingly, five activities are suggested (as in the PhD research ‘A Communicative Approach to Teaching Grammar: Theory and Practice‘ by Siaw-Fong Chung, 2005): games, natural contexts, activities that balance skills, personalization, and adjustment of teacher role.

In Bangladesh, what are being followed is obsessed with previous and traditional structural method. In line with the contents, the way of teaching should also be reconsidered. Teacher’s active inclusion and involvement in students learning activities and passive role in giving instructions can accelerate in creating the CLT teaching-learning environment. The traditional concept of teacher-student relationship should be changed from learner’s early stage. A tension free friendly relationship is essential and a pre-condition for creating CLT approaches in Bangladesh. Learners involvement in the classroom depends on the removal of their psychological phoebia came from shyness or from other sources. Implementing more learner’s activities such as educative puzzles, games and sports, quizzes, brain works, pair revision, scheduled open discussion etc can help in making a CLT environment. The learners should be given the importance on achieving fluency at first, and then accuracy will come automatically if selective grammar items are taught in their learning progress. A teacher may try to enhance the multidimensional intelligence such as   : ‘linguistic intelligence, logical and mathematical intelligence, spatial intelligence, musical intelligence, bodily-kinaesthetic intelligence, interpersonal intelligence, intrapersonal intelligence, and naturalist intelligence‘, Gardner (1999). These can be enticed and aroused by selective texts in their syllabus and some active roles played by the teachers to activate student’s active role. Halliday (1992) ascribes the means to perform the CLT approach through some functions as proponent instrumental, regulatory, interactional, personal, heuristic, imaginative and representational. In Bangladesh, all prevalent facilities of developed countries may not be available. So, the measures to be in taken in implementing CLTA in Bangladesh may differ. The role of teachers in Bangladesh, especially in rural areas  are to be trained to come out from their cocoons of traditional methods  to  cope with CLTA. Games of Bangladeshi taste and type in English can be innovated for creating and igniting initial interest. Song with language background can be practised. Long or mini dialogues can be used where the essence of motivation will be prominent. Peer revisions, works and discussions along with groups can be utilised carefully with the mastery of teacher’s role. Evaluation can be made at first by the students by their pair work and then by teachers. Teachers must try to increase the analytical strength at first and then can proceed the process of evaluating among them by them. As a facilitator, a teacher can be trained by experts how to achieve it. Oral communication activities can be encouraged from controlled and guided to freer communication and environment. Questions and answers can be encouraged from the learners own experience. Teachers may play their role as ‘Needs Analyst‘, ‘A Counsellor‘ or ‘A Group Manager‘ or ‘A Classroom Manager‘. Teachers should not wait for the formal teaching rather can start from the beginning so that learners can be psychologically prepared for the fluency and performance first and then accuracy and perfection. Learners should be always reminded that ‘communicative competence‘is the first priority;‘ language competence‘ will come after that.

In CLT approach, student’s role is usually active. In Bangladeshi perspective, Syllabuses of different public universities, and in all undergraduate levels (General education, Technical Education, Madrassa Education ) the variations of syllabuses might be one of the vital reasons for not reforming syllabuses on the basis of meeting the demand of the practical world.  All the texts included in the existing syllabuses may not reflect the aim of the communicative syllabus. Though no relevant research has been done for identifying the actual condition lying in the texts, it can be assumed that most of the grammar activities in the text books of the stated level still feature the traditional  set pattern rather conforming to the principles of the communicative syllabus. Though some parts of the textbooks attempt to integrate the communicative elements, most exercises are mainly structural with the inclusion of grammar-rule explanation that shows the affinity of the earlier Grammar-Translation Method. Grammar items should be chosen keeping the view in the mind that it must reflect the concept of CLTA so that the teaching-learning process can be proved useful in the present context.

Objectives of the Study:

Diverse language teaching methods have been applied from time to time in undergraduate education in Bangladesh. Many critics assume that Grammar Translation Method could not continue to hold its popularity as ‘It requires few specialized skills on the part of the teachers. Tests of grammar rules and of translations are easy to construct and can be objectively scored. Many standardized tests of foreign languages still do not attempt to tap into communicative abilities, so, students have little motivation to go beyond grammar analogies, translations, and rote exercises‘   Brown (1994:53).  After that, direct method became popular as a method of teaching English language especially in the first two decades of twentieth century. Grammar was taught inductively but it could not sustain as it was a method meant for short-term and quick success based on some set things.  Audio lingual method appeared in a context for short-term use during world war. It based on some drilling of set things and continued to become popular in the middle of twtienth century till 1960’s. Situational language teaching became popular in parallel with Audio lingual method and grammar rules were basically taught by oral practices. As the theory focused on achieving accuracy through oral practices and mistakes were discouraged, this method soon gave a question of sustaining among the linguists. Communicative Language Teaching Approach (CLTA) appears as a challenge as it differs from the other methods in many respects.  According to Hymes (as cited in Larseen-Freeman, 2000), communicative competence is „knowing when and how to say what to whom“(p-121). According to David Nunan the communicative approach to language teaching is a cluster of language teaching techniques and methodologies, it is not a single methodology.

Dissatisfaction caused by situational approach and structuralism, Communicative Language Teaching was appeared in 1970’s and supported by Council of Europe and linguists of United States of America particularly from California. ‘However, in the 1970s, particularly in California, a new type of pedagogy arose and started becoming popular in response to the greatly increased number of ESL learners, who outnumbered native English speakers in some school districts. Many of these learners knew grammar rules but could not use the target language communicatively, and others urgently needed immediate survival competency in English. The related humanist approaches were also developed in the late 1970s and 1980s as communicative activities designed to give learners positive feelings toward the instructional process so that language acquisition was facilitated.‘ (Lawrence Eribaum Associates, NJ, 2002). The focus came on the point of the learners that they knew the grammar rules but could not use them in the target language. This gave a new thought of urgency of the Communicative Language Teaching Approach. Yalden (1987:61) focuses on CLT, as a summary on the essence, ‘It is based on the notion of the learners as communicators, naturally endowed with the ability to learn languages. It seeks to provide learners with the target language system. It is assumed that learners will have to prepare to use the target language (orally and in written form) in many predictable and unpredictable acts of communication which arise both in classroom interaction and in real-world situations, whether concurrent with language training or subsequent to it‘.

After introducing CLT in many countries, many English textbooks were designed attempting to accommodate the expectations of the communicative syllabus. When grammar teaching is concerned, CLT focuses on „communicative proficiency rather than mere mastery of structures“ (Richards and Rogers, 1986:64). ‘Communicative language teaching (CLT) refers to both processes and goals in classroom learning‘ (Savignon, 2002). The central theoretical concept in communicative language teaching is ‘‘communicative competence,“ a term introduced into discussions of language use and second or foreign language learning in the early 1970s (Habermas 1970; Hymes 1971; Jakobovits 1970; Savignon 1971). Competence is defined in terms of the expression, interpretation, and negotiation of meaning and looks to both psycholinguistic and sociocultural perspectives in second language acquisition (SLA) research to account for its development (Savignon 1972, 1997). Identification of learners‘ communicative needs provides a basis for curriculum design (Van Ek 1975). So, curriculum design is very important in Communicative Language Teaching Approach.

Some critics say that there seem a conflict between Communicative Language teaching and Grammar because of their ultimate goal in terms of results such as fluency and accuracy. But the remarks in favour of the contradictions between Grammar and Communicative Approach are irrelevant and the search for the proper way to teach grammar through Communicative Language Teaching now has become a prime concern in many countries. It is believed that ‘…the more thoroughly a learner masters the grammatical system of the language, the more effectively he or she can use this language for communication‘ (Sayeedur Rahman, 2005).      The aim of learning English is to be able to communicate in the official and business world in changed perspective of the world. Since it is not needed as a language under compulsion in Bangladesh from anthropologist and ethnographic point of view, the main target is for communication which can convert our population as resource and manpower in the world economic market. Hence, among the most used language skills are Listening and speaking both in and outside the classroom. Speaking is an interactive process of constructing ‘Meaning‘ that involves producing, receiving and processing information (Florez, 1999; Brown, 1994), Kumaravadivelu (1999). So, the time has come to reconsider the selection and use of grammar terms in the changed needs of Bangladesh. The research is very important because it demonstrates discourse bridges, the relationship between language structure and the immediate or the recent social context where it will be used. Here, classroom is a ‘Mini society‘-an exercise centre of predictable and unpredictable situations with its own activities and rules. Pennington (2002) hints of „action grammar“ in which grammar of language should meet the need of real use: „it must be interactive in nature and relative to specific discourse communicates and their communicative practices“ (Fall 2005 Issues in EFL Vol.3 No.2 187). So, students usually should produce sounds, gestures, writing for each other using basic grammatical structures for purposeful actions.

 Penny Ur, in her interview with The British Council in Chennai, London, Delhi and Israel, suggests some factors that can be useful for CLTA. These are considered as TacitMyths of CLTA. According to her, ‘Some amount of explicit teaching was necessary to correct, explain and raise awareness about grammar usage. Students may talk and listen but unless explicitly taught grammar, they may not speak correctly.‘ She added that solution lies in reaching a balance between communicative grammar and theoretical grammar…. Instead of fill-in-the-blank type exercises, students needed creative exercises to encourage original thinking‘.  She also adds ‘Fluency and accuracy are two factors which determine the success of the students in the future‘. She further says ‘Students should not be asked to learn lists of words‘ and ‘Memorizing chunks of language such as How do you do? And its proper response, idioms, phrases, proverbs and the rest, equips students with a readymade vocabulary of grammatical combinations that could be adapted to suit different situations.‘ About grammar, she continues  ‘Grammar is an arbitrary system, so the more we talk the better it is because that’s the only way non-native speakers can pick up language and grammar‘

‘In terms of language teaching methodology, the communicative approach provides the learners with an opportunity to use language for communication purposes without focusing on accuracy‘ (Bygate, 2001). The aims of the communicative approach are (a) ‘to make communicative competence the goal of language teaching and (b) develop procedures for the teaching of the four language skills that acknowledge the interdependence of language and communication‘ (Richards and Rodgers, 1986: 66). Regarding Communicative Language Teaching, Howatt (1984) suggests the possible mix of Grammar and Structure with Communicative Language Teaching Approach. According to him, ‘…attempts to integrate such activities into a wider program of language teaching…. advances the claim that language is acquired through communication, so that it is not merely a question of activating an existing but inert knowledge of the language, but of stimulating the development of the language system itself‘. So, mix of Grammar and Communicative Language Teaching Approach can be considered a fruitful method for the desired level.

In fact, the linguists and the researchers felt that the students are not learning enough realistic English language. Despite knowing the rules of English grammar, they could not communicate well in social environment using proper social language with expressions. English seems to be confined in bookish knowledge; learners are not getting the benefits of English for communication in their real life. The language competency seems to be absent. The aim of teaching- learning English is not achieved the desired goal.

As Steven Pinker explains Chomsky’s Language theory, he classifies the language competency through four parts of competency level. These also reflect the importance of teaching grammar for achieving language competency. He clarifies these as following:

1. Grammatical competence is how well a person has learned that features and rules of the language. This includes vocabulary, pronunciation, and sentence formation. The main question is: How well does a person understand English grammar?

2. Sociolinguistic competence is how well a person speaks and is understood in various social contexts. This depends on factors such as status of those speaking to each other, the purpose of the interaction, and the expectations of the interaction. The main question is: how socially acceptable is the person’s use of English in different settings?

3. Discourse competence is how well a person can combine grammatical forms and meanings to achieve different types (genres) of speaking or writing. The main question is: How well does one properly combine all the languages elements to speak or write in English?

4. Strategic competence is how well the person uses both verbal forms and non-verbal communication to compensate for lack of knowledge in the other three competencies.

The existing condition of the stated level is to be analyzed through scientific method. If any actual CLT is being practiced, that is to be identified and would be analyzed for further studies to mark its‘ actual version, adaptability, from utilitarian point of view. Howatt (1984) classified CLT into ‘strong‘ and ‘weak‘ versions. Communicative features are the vital concern of the strong version on the other side; the weak version promotes the integration of structural practice into the communicative elements. If the former could be described as ‘learning to use‘ English, the latter entails ‘using English to learn it‘. Howatt (1984: 279). This research can include the feasibility of introducing the view that both structural and communicative elements can have a major role to play in EFL and ESL teaching in the Asian setting especially in Bangladesh. One of the most probable reasons of this feasible implementation is that may be the traditions and norms of practicing the structural syllabuses in Bangladesh for last three decades can not be changed radically, rather can play a role of active agent or a catalyst. Another reason may be ‘…communicative proficiency will become easier to achieve only when one has grasped the necessary knowledge of language (such as grammar). For societies whose first (and second) language is not English, there is still a need for structural practices so that the foundation of linguistic knowledge can be built up before further‘ (William Littlewood, English Centre, University of Hong Kong, 2006). So, presence of grammar in CLTA is indispensible because ‘…the notion that grammar and communication are incompatible opposites is based on serious misconceptions about the nature of language and language use‘ (William Littlewood, 2006), and ‘The notion that an individual can develop anything other than a rudimentary communication ability without an extensive mastery of the grammatical system is absurd (David Wilkins in the journal Applied Linguistics, 1981). So, it is necessary to find out possible and effective bridge between grammar and CLTA, which is the prime concern of the present research. The more elaborately a learner masters the grammar of a language, the more effectively he or she can use the targeted language for communication. This position was strongly established by David Wilkins, whose work in the 1970s provided one of the major impetuses to the communicative approach i.e. ‘The notion that an individual can develop anything other than a rudimentary communication ability without an extensive mastery of the grammatical system is absurd ‘ ( Applied Linguistics, 1981).

Some research works have already been done regarding the communicative approach of teaching grammar in some Asian countries specially in China {a survey carried out by Maley (1986:104)}, in Taiwan {Siaw-Fong Chung (2005:33-50)}, in Nepal {Koirala, Sanjel  et al (NELTA Vol. 10, 2005 )}, in Malaysia ( Siti Rohani Bt Md. Zain, PhD Thesis, 2007), in India {Annika Hohenthal(1998)}. These researches do not reflect the environment of Bangladesh, because the position of English Language in Bangladesh is not same like these countries. Even with the most nearest neighbouring country India. In a small country like Bangladesh, the scope of using other language instead English was very limited from emotional and utilitarian point of view. India is a vast country having a huge variation of language difference, Malaysia, Taiwan, Singapore these types of developing countries have to depend on their tourism and resources and people from different countries have migrated over there. Naturally, as a part of their integration and political unity, English has been chosen emphatically. So, the scenario is quite different in Bangladesh. But the things are changing with the emphasis given by the government emphasizing on a new era of using skilled manpower as well as exploring the scope of multinational jobs. Now time has come to re-consider English language teaching approach in Bangladesh, because undergraduate syllabuses do not reflect the Communicative Language Teaching Approach rather these still reflect the structural approach. The rise of so many local and foreign English skills training centers are indications of that. If the policy makers would give attention, FM method, Saifurs, Mentors etc. could not promote the language courses as the replacement to the undergraduate English courses of universities. English is needed in Bangladesh not solely for internal use, rather mostly for international use. Bangladesh, as an underdeveloped and overpopulated country of the third world can make her human resources useful in the world perspective, where she is still facing a hard competition and sometimes lagging behind in terms of knowing useful communicative English. The recent government policies can accelerate the Bangladeshi linguists‘ endeavours in innovating a right approach in the right moment. The approaches to be implemented in Bangladesh should be based on local conditions considering the practical factors.

Significance of the Study

‘Bangladeshi students are learning English from utilitarian point of view, rather than integrative motivation‘ (Asian EFL Journal, June, 2005). So, it is necessary to find out the appropriate approach for Bangladeshi students. It involves to analyze the feasible texts and techniques befitting Bangladeshi socio-economic perspectives  because  ‘An approach is a set of co-relative assumptions dealing with the nature of language teaching and learning…it describes the subject matter to be taught…where method is an overall plan‘ (Richards & Rogers, p-14-30, 2002)

The history of English teaching in Bangladesh is rather less smooth in comparison to that with neighboring countries as it had to face some problems. Before the independence of Bangladesh, status of English language was tagged with the crucial policy taken by the authority who tried to impose their mother tongue as national language of Bangladesh. So, the attention of the Bangladeshi educational policy makers was to stay with Bangla language, perhaps, they didn’t find the ample scope to improve the English or could not go for researches as the concentration was from emotional point of view. After liberation in 1971, the scenario started changing. After the freedom war of 1971, Bangladeshi curriculum in undergraduate levels were mostly based on English as Urdu was hated, and Bangla text books were not prepared in a large scale. So, the importance was given on Grammar-Translation method as the policy makers were influenced and pre-occupied by structural methods. The syllabuses of secondary, higher secondary and undergraduate levels were influenced purely based on by the extracts or texts from English literature and language ruled by grammar. World trend of CLT was almost absent in that time. The emotional implement of ‘The Bangla Procholon Ain-1987′ was a shock to the progress of English. It actually restricted the use of English in any type of official communication and correspondences and thus English was ignored from the socio-cultural domain.  The policy makers were influenced by the BPA act, 1987 because it influenced as ‘background to the policy decisions and the current status of English‘ (Banu & Sussex, 2001). The necessity of learning English language was felt tremendously and so, in the year 1989, English was introduced as a compulsory subject in colleges and universities covering the Higher Secondary and Undergraduate syllabuses. The necessity and urge of improving English was felt much more than ever. The syllabuses were mostly based on structural type followed by Grammar-translation method and after that Situational method. The new era of English flourished in the beginning of twenty-first century, i.e. after 2001, because of changes taken place in the policies of teaching English in neighboring and in many other countries. The growth of the jobs in the private sectors and in multinational companies created the demand of the persons who know effective English practically needed for communication across the national borders. Hence, the emergence of the Communicative Language Teaching Approaches in Asian countries has given a new thought of rethinking on the policy to be implemented because the graduated people could not use English effectively. It is felt in Bangladesh lately, but it was felt earlier in many countries since many  of these learners knew grammar rules but could not use the target language communicatively, and others urgently needed immediate survival competency in English.'(Rogers, 2002). Emotional attachment, socio-economic conditions, post liberation war unstable conditions, restlessness in mind-setup regarding political issues hindered the way of improving educational sector in Bangladesh as well as English also.

Thus the concept of teaching English grammar seems to have been provided with the idea of the failure of the cited methods to teach English grammar effectively in Bangladesh. For this reason, this study emphasizes how teaching grammar through communicative language teaching approach (CLTA) is functioning in the context of Bangladesh.

Research Questions:

This paper seeks to understand teaching grammar through communicative language teaching approach (CLTA) in the context of Bangladesh. Despite many teaching approaches of English language, CLTA seems, at present, an appreciable method very often discussed among the academics and is heard as a popular language teaching approach in the globe. Actually students in Bangladesh from class 01 to class 12 have English courses on their syllabus but unfortunately most of them are remaining below the competent level with a very few exceptions. At the same time, even many university graduates cannot reach at least the communicative level of speaking and writing English language using correct grammar. In such a situation this paper attempts to address the possible problems causing the barriers for learning English grammar in Bangladesh with the following questions. 

a)      Is teaching English Grammar important for the students at the undergraduate level?

b)      Are Grammar-Translation methods, Audio lingual method, Berlitz Method (Direct Method) and so on not effective to teach English grammar?

c)      Does the undergraduate syllabus have sufficient elements to satisfy the present need in the field of communication?

d)     Are the students capable enough to learn grammar clearly for communicative perspective?

e)      Do the teachers have sufficient knowledge and adaptability to accept teaching grammar through CLTA? What role is being played by the teacher, a facilitator or a dictator?

f)       Is the policy of Bangladesh suitable to nourish the technique of teaching grammar through Communicative Language Teaching Approach?

g)      Are the socio-economic and infra-structural condition impediments for this approach?  

Research Methodology:

Multiple methods would be used in the investigation including interviews, classroom observations, journal writings and analysis of lesson plans. Data would be analyzed and categorized for common themes and patterns in the undergraduate level of English teaching including various sectors under Public Universities, National University and Madrassa level.  The central theme of the analysis would highlight the interactive relationship between beliefs, knowledge and instructional contexts in teachers‘ personal framework of teaching grammar and learners‘ inherent belief in the practical context.

The primary & secondary data would be sought on the basis of practical experience. Basically the secondary data will be considered as per the set standard of the Native & Non-Native English experts. The method may include Questionnaire with closed and open type among controlled group after data are being selected randomly. For a smooth study, questionnaire would be distributed among teachers and learners. Likart scale may be used in setting methodology. The Questionnaire would consist of demographic information and their statement. Obviously, it will be made clear to the respondents before their answer in a scientific way. There will be followed a standard version of questionnaire for perfect data collection. The whole data analysis will be furnished through SPSS version 18.0 

 Conclusion:

The history of English Language in Bangladesh is not new. Though, Bangladesh had been a colony of The Great Britain as were India and Pakistan, and again a part of Pakistan, the scenario of English is quite different here. ‘The role of English in Bangladesh is purely functional as English is used as an international link language. Unlike India, English is not used as an interpersonal and inter-institutional communication and there is seemingly no possibility of English becoming the lingua franca in Bangladesh‘ ((Asian EFL Journal, June, 2005). Since the socio-economic conditions are different than India and Pakistan, the need of English is important for the international perspective than national need. In Bangladesh, the role of grammar in teaching-learning English at undergraduate level is to be redefined so that, the learners can get the befitting knowledge in the new era of e-world of national and international job market and at the same time, the prestige and standard of  English education at the stated level would be renovated and up-dated.  

References

Alam, Sarwar. (2011). Grammar studies: Undergraduate English Teaching in Bangladesh. JU, Bangladesh.

Brumfit,C. 1984. Communicative Methodology in Language Teaching: The Roles of Fluency and Accuracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Celce-Murcia, M.(1991). Grammar Pedagogy in Second and Foreign Language Teaching. TESOL Quarterly, 25(3): 459-480

Cowan, R.(2008). The Teacher’s Grammar of English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Crystal,D (2004).The Language Revolution. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Dekeyser, R.(2003). Implicit and Explicit Learning. In C.J.Doughty and M.H.Long(eds), The Handbook of Second Language Acquiosition (pp. 313-345). Oxford: Blackwell.

Ellis, R.(2006). Current Issues in the Teaching of Grammar: An SLA Perspective. TESOL Quarterly, 40(1):83-107

Halliday, M.A.K.1973. Explorations in the Functions of Language. London: Edward Arnold.

Larsen-Freeman, D.(2001). Teaching Grammar. In M.Celce-Murcia(ed.), [3rd edn.], Boston, Mass, Heinle & Heinle

Leech, G. & Svartik,J.1975.A Communicative Grammar of English. London: Longman.

Litosseliti, lia.(2011). Research Methods in Linguistics

Murison-Bowie, S.1983. Blending Grammatical and Notional/Functional Syllabuses. Rassegna Italina di Linguistica Applicata xv/1 25-34

Nassaji, H.(2000). Towards Integrating Form Focused Instruction and Communicative Interaction in the Second Language Classroom: Some Pedagogical Possibilities. The Modern Language Journal, 84(2)

Ng, E.K.J., & Farrell, T.S.C. (2003). Do Teachers‘ Beliefs of Grammar Teaching Match Their Classroom Practices? A Singapore Case Study. In D. Deterding

Nunan, D.(1989). Designing Tasks for Communicative Classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Orrirux, C. (1989). The Grammar Translation Method. Retrived from http://oswaldoipc.wordpress.com, as sited in NELTA Journal15-1/2, Dec,2010, Nepal.

Rohani, Siyi. (2007). Teaching of Grammar: Teachers‘ Beliefs, Instructional Contexts and Practices. PhD Thesis, Malaysia

Widdowson, G.G.1978. Teaching Language as Communication. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Yule, George. (1985). The Study of Language, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. 2nd edition.

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How to Read My Husband's Texts – The Best Way to Do It!


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Do you want to know how to read my husband’s texts? Would you like to see the people that your husband is always having text messaging conversations with? Do you wonder who your husband is always texting? Do you want to know why your husband is texting at late hours of the night and who he could possibly be sending text messages to at this hour? Would you like to get to the bottom of your husband’s frequent text messaging? Are you afraid that your husband may be texting another women behind your back or doing something that he shouldn’t be doing? As his wife you should definitely be able to find out who your husband is always texting, it is your right to know the truth.

With marriage comes trust but when your husband is always texting someone how are you suppose to trust him? You have no idea who he could be talking to. Does your husband sometimes delete his text messaging inbox once he is done texting? If this is the case then you should definitely want to learn how to read my husband’s text. If your husband is texting another women behind your back then you need to find out as soon as possible before something bad happens that could possibly ruin your relationship.

The first thing most wives do when they become suspicious of their husband’s addiction to texting is try and physically look through their husband’s phone. If you think about it you could definitely find out who your husband is texting but it isn’t usually this easy. What if your husband deletes all of his text messages after every conversation? You won’t be able to see who he is talking to and will still be left with the fear of your husband cheating on you. Or what if your husband catches you looking through his cell phone? This would definitely result in an argument and would only make things worse. If you want to learn how to read my husband’s text then you will have to do something else.

In order to learn how to read my husband’s texts you will need to use cell phone spying software. This software does exactly what its name says it does; it spies on your husband’s phone. All of your husband’s text messages are recorded by this software and are uploaded to a safe and secure online account only accessible by you. Even if your husband were to delete his text messages you will still be able to read them because as soon as these text messages are received on your husband’s phone they are recorded. Cell phone spying software not only records your husband’s text messages but his call history as well so you will be able to see who your husband is talking to on the phone.

If your husband is cheating on your then he won’t be able to get away with it anymore as long as you have cell phone spying software. You can now easily catch your husband cheating and find out the truth.

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Hallelujah Sheet Music


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Hallelujah is a song published by the popular Canadian singer-composer Leonard Cohen. Also known as a novelist and poet, Cohen wrote the main version of the lyrics of Hallelujah, containing quite a few biblical texts. His main inspiration while writing the song originated from the tales of Samson and Delilah from the Book of Judges and also the adulterous relationship of King David and Bathsheba in the Book of Samuel, differentiating Cohen’s Hallelujah from George Frideric Handel’s Hallelujah Chorus from his popular oratorio The Messiah, HWV 56. Handel wrote the libretto in the Book of Revelations.

Leonard Cohen’s Hallelujah was released in 1984 from his 7th album Various Position, which obtained little success until a cover version appeared by John Cale. His version was featured in the 2001 computer animated film Shrek that also place the song into well known audience. With this version by John Cale, another cover made by Jeff Buckley solidified the song as the best songs ever written. It garnered a lot of success globally making Jeff Buckley a superstar. His version hailed as one the perfect version ever made and became one of the quickest selling download single in history. Due to the success with the song, quite a few versions were made including a version by Rufus Wainwright, K.D. Lang, Allison Crowe and Alexandra Burke to mention a few.

Hallelujah is actually a Hebrew word, which means, „Praise Yah.“

Cohen has said of the song’s meaning: „It describes that many kinds of Hallelujahs do exist, and all the perfect and damaged Hallelujahs have equal value.“ Lyrics to Cohen’s Hallelujah calls forth both waltz and gospel music. The sheet music of Hallelujah, in its original version, is really a song in „12/8 feel.“ As written in the sheet music the key is at C major plus the chord progression comes after the lyric „it goes like that, the 4th, the fifth, the minor fall, as well as major lift“: C, F, G, A minor, F. Originally Cohen’s Hallelujah sheet music available have unique arrangements as a result of different versions with the song. Hallelujah’s sheet music transcribed by Alaric Duban was for singing, guitar and keyboard. (4) The written music of Hallelujah initially written in C major, seemed to be transpose in several keys. You will discover available Hallelujah written music in A major (3 sharps), B flat major (2 sharps), E flat major (3 flats), F major (1 flat), G major (1 sharp), A flat major (4 flats). Usually used by voice and piano. A different Hallelujah sheet music available was transposed into choral settings. The first is for Tenor and Bass (all male chorus) plus the other was for Soprano and Alto pieces (all woman chorus).

Sheet music of Hallelujah showed changes also in lyrics. Rufus Wainwright sheet music of Hallelujah showed that he modified some words and phrases like from „Holy Dove“ to „Holy Dark.“ Allison Crowe, additionally a Canadian singer-musician had written her own written music of Hallelujah. She felt the requirement to replace in the sheet music the lyrics from „Holy Dove to „Holy Ghost.“ Her version was named Record each week by Record through the day (UK) in July2004 and once again in October 2005.

As Leonard Cohen’s Hallelujah became probably the greatest selling music before today, this made song extremely popular for arrangers to write out them create sheet music independently. A lot of variations of Hallelujah sheet music are actually written because of the success of song therefore far artists who made their particular Hallelujah written music received achievement within their field. Countless versions are actually recorded also it showed the good expertise of Leonard Cohen not just being a composer but additionally an author. The February 2009 problem of Blender, Hallelujah was highlighted since the month’s „Greatest Song Ever.“

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Musical Culture of the Munda Tribe


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This book on musical culture of the Munda Tribe of Chotanagpur plateau of middle eastern India is a step in this direction .Music is composed from real life situation and experiences of either sex of the individuals and depicts the total life as well as cultural history of the people of that period.How a Munda perceives, conceptualises and articulates his life experiences ideas and emotions and how he formulates philosophy of life out of his experiences, is a representative example of the pattern and process in music making and its value in tribal society. Musical life of the tribals is full of behavioural activities and interaction with men, on the one hand, and with nature and spirit world, on the other. Human ideas, attitudes and emotion in general, find its best expression through the medium of songs and dance and the best example of it can be seen in Munda music. In the book, original songs texts have been retained with English translation so as to facilitate further research in this area.

The Munda Tradition of music and culture

Anthropology of Munda songs
Music of the Mundas
Dances of the Mundas

Journey through the stages of life

Making the life
Marriage and social life
The Marital life

The Environment and tribal people

The Physical Environment
The Flora world in songs
The cosmic Universe

The Social World and the Philosophy of Life

Socialization and People of other cultures
The Philosophy of life and world views

Political History of the people

The Different periods in History
Degeneration of Musical culture

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Oldies Music Lyrics – Know the Songs You Love


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The thing I love about oldies music lyrics is that those singers sang about their feelings. Back in the day they came straight from the heart. Whether it was love, hate, whatever, it was genuine. Especially where love is concerned. Those singers really knew how to sing about love. If a man loved a woman, he told her so. He did not go around trying to be a player, trying to get all the women in the world to be with him. He just got that one woman, wrote a song about her and sang his heart out to let her know how he felt. Today's songs have nothing on oldies music lyrics. First of all it is rare to find an artist today singing about true love, at least on mainstream radio. Also the thing that helped the old school singers create great lyrics were their musicians who used real instruments, not electronic music and synthesizers. If you listen to a song today that's at least forty years old, you will hear a trumpet, a flute, a saxophone, real instruments.

The words in oldies music lyrics can easily bring out in you what you've been wanting to say, but could not find the words to say on your own. You can listen to any country song by Conway Twitty and find yourself bawling at the end because the words are so truthful and have so much meaning to at least one situation in your life. That is what oldies music lyrics does. It speaks about truth. There's always a meaning in the song. I do not think today's artists have the inspiration of those that came before them. Think about it, when you imagine a classic song, what comes to mind? Probably not any song written in the past thirty years. The classic songs, especially the love ballads, are from back in the day. Even the fast rock and roll songs are the older ones, not anything you might hear on today's top 40. They do not even come close. Slow songs, fast songs, blues, country, pop, rock, and even the motown sound … there is no substitute for old school.

Most of the artists today do not even have the talent to write original songs and lyrics. They spend so much time sampling other songs and then when they do use great music, they sample over it with rap songs. I know some of these old school song writers who have left this earth are somewhere saying, "why in the world did you give them permission to sample over my song." Old school singers sang about life. The writers wrote about life and that's not textbook. That's called being creative, in other words, having talent.

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Who Is Texting My Girlfriend – Get The Tool To Find Out Right Here!


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Would you like to know who is texting my girlfriend? Are you curious who your girlfriend is constantly receiving text messages from? Is she always on her phone talking to someone? Does she receive texts at odd hours of the night when she really shouldn’t be talking to anyone? Is she secretive about the text messages that she receives and will never tell you who it is? When you ask her who she is talking to does she always reply with „no one?“ Does your girlfriend’s excessive use of her cell phone frighten you to the point where you would like to know who is texting my girlfriend?

Would you like to know who is texting my girlfriend without ever actually needing to physically have her phone? Do you want to be able to read her messages whenever you want no matter where she is or what she is doing? Would you like to be able to finally read your girlfriend’s deleted messages so you know every single text that she receives?

Any boyfriend would like to know who is texting my girlfriend and become suspicious when their girlfriend is always on her phone. If your girlfriend ignores you when she is trying to text someone and you would like to know who that person that is so important is then continue reading. Texting is used by everyone in today’s world allowing for anyone to have the opportunity to text your girlfriend.

Most boyfriends try to take matters into their own hands when they try to find who is texting my girlfriend. The most common thing that any boyfriend does is try looking through their girlfriend’s phone. When their girlfriend is in the shower or is out shopping and has left her phone then they try to take her phone and go through her messages. However there are many problems with this. You first risk the chance of getting caught by your girlfriend and causing a whole new problem. You also risk the chance of your girlfriend deleting all of her text messages that showed her talking to someone she shouldn’t be talking to so you wasted your time.

Sometimes boyfriends even go as far as taking the phone right out of their girlfriend’s hands while they are in the middle of texting. However this could also cause a big problem. If your girlfriend really wasn’t texting someone that she shouldn’t be then she will think that you don’t trust her and an argument will break out. There has to be a better way than this.

The best way to see who is texting my girlfriend is through the use of cell phone spying software. This amazing software enables you to see who your girlfriend is not only receiving messages from but also sending messages to. Even if your girlfriend deletes all of her texts you will still be able to see them so she can’t hide who she is talking to. All of this information is accessible on the comfort of your computer where you don’t have to risk getting caught.

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Is it a Good Idea to Listen to Music While Reading?


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Do you like listening to music while reading? If yes then have you ever thought how it affects your reading process? Does it allow you to read faster or does it slow you down? How does it affect the reading comprehension?

First, it must be stated that if you want to read fast then you have to concentrate well to the text you are reading. Your thoughts have to be focused and you should not let your mind to wander away. Poor concentration leads to slow reading speed. In addition, it hurts your reading comprehension. If your mind is not with the text you may lose track while reading and you will have problems with memorizing the content of the reading material.

It means that the effect of music on speed reading and comprehension should be judged upon the effect of music on your concentration. The question is can music distract you or could it be helpful for achieving better concentration.

It has to be noted that in most cases human mind can efficiently deal with only one task at the same time. For example, if you are reading and talking to the telephone simultaneously, then it is likely that your reading speed will be slower, you may have difficulties in memorizing the text and the phone call may be not as successful as you wished. So, if you want to be efficient then you should not read and talk with the telephone at the same time.

If the music that we are listening to starts to distract us in a way that we focus on the music instead of focusing on the text then our reading performance will suffer. If the music is for background and if it does not turn our attention away from the text, then music is not a distracting factor for reading.

It depends on your personality and some people find listening to music supportive to their reading process, while for the others the effect of music can be the opposite. Many people can not feel comfortable in a complete silence. For them, background music can create a more comfortable environment. Still, music should be there only for the background and it means that it should not be catchy. The music should not be so attractive that you start listening to it. It can be there for creating the atmosphere, but you should not listen to it attentively while reading. Therefore instrumental music is better for reading as there is no possibility for listening to the lyrics. It is good if the music is relaxing by its nature, so heavy metal would not be a wise choice. You can listen to sounds of the nature or music for meditation while reading.

You may also want to listen to music when you are in a noisy environment, such as an office, where other people are chatting, making phone calls etc. Then you can put on your earphones, and the music helps you to isolate from disturbing noises. Putting the earphones on may be also helpful in situations when you get often interrupted by your colleagues, who start chatting to you. If you have your earphones on then other people usually will not disturb you unless the have a serious issue to talk about.

To find out if the background music is good for your reading performance you can try out reading with and without music. Afterwards you can compare in which situation you can read more focused. Try to observe if the music starts turning your attention away from the text. If that is the case, then reading and music do not mix for you or at least you should try different type of music, which is less catchy.

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Want to Find Out Who My Boyfriend is Texting? Read This!


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Do you want to find out who my boyfriend is texting? Would you like to know why your boyfriend is always on his phone texting with other people as well as who he is talking to? When your boyfriend ignores you to answer a text message on his phone do you become annoyed? If your boyfriend is texting throughout the entire night do you have a reason to become not only suspicious but angry? Does your boyfriend’s excessive cell phone use bother you? Would you want to find out who my boyfriend is texting if you could do it without him ever knowing?

If your boyfriend is always texting then these is definitely reason to become suspicious. Who is the mysterious person that your boyfriend is always texting? Is it really a friend as he claims or is it actually another women that he is cheating on you with? Behind your back does your boyfriend text another women and act like nothing is wrong?

Many girlfriend’s, even if their boyfriend isn’t always texting, try to find out who their boyfriend is texting. They usually begin by asking their boyfriend „who are you texting?“ Most boyfriends will just tell you that it’s their friend or someone from work. You can’t really force them to tell you who they are really texting if it were to be another women. Many girlfriends then rely on physically looking through their boyfriend’s phone. They will take the phone in hopes of reading through his text messaging conversations and finding out for themselves. However, this can surely cause many problems and arguments to begin. If your boyfriend catches you he will become very protective and think that you don’t trust him which will only lead to an argument.

There has to be a better way that will allow you to find out the truth to the question, I want to find out who my boyfriend is texting. A way to show you that either your boyfriend is telling the truth and is texting just friends or that he is lying to you and talking to another women.

This truth comes with the use of cell phone spying software. This software is readily available to anyone who would want to find out who my boyfriend is texting. Cell phone spying software is imply installed onto your boyfriend’s phone and all of his text messaging activity will be recorded for you to view. This data is recorded onto an online account that you can access from any computer making it very convenient for you.

Cell phone spying software also has many other features. It can be used to monitor your boyfriend’s call history where it records all of your boyfriend’s incoming and outgoing calls. As well as this, you can use cell phone spying software as a GPS tracking device that will record where your boyfriend travels to and at what time. All of these useful features can be used with the assistance of cell phone spying software.

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Song Lyrics in Fiction – What Writers Need to Know


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Authors sometimes find it really tempting to use song lyrics in a novel or story. The words of the song are just so powerful and so right that … well, they need to be there.

If you're considering using song lyrics in your work of fiction, you may want to come up with a back-up plan. Here are some things you should know:

  • you or your publisher may be able to get rights to use the lyrics – or maybe not
  • it's probably going to cost you (typically a small fee per copy you make, but that can add up)
  • your publisher may decide the lyrics are not worth the time / effort / money required to use them.

What about 'fair use'?

Fair Use principles were not put in place to cover fiction.

You could claim fair use if you were writing, say, a nonfiction piece looking at US cultural shifts over the last fifty years through the lens of Top-10 lyrics. To write such a work, you'd clearly need to reference some lyrics. But if you tried to get permission and pay for every single song, those barriers would jeopardize your ability to produce the work. Fair use would allow you to quote a few lines from each song to help make your point as you presented your analysis.

Putting lyrics into your fiction is something else altogether.

You'll read a lot of pages online that talk about lyric printing as 'fair use', etc., but that's a stretch of the fair use doctrine and completely unreliable when it comes to novels and other works of fiction.

What's the worst that could happen?

I'm not a lawyer. Personally, I think the worst that would probably happen is that someone would see you used the lyrics and sue to make you pay. You'd have to pay the usage fees, plus maybe some punitive damages and court fees. All that could add up to a great deal more than it would have cost to get the rights in the first place.

I further think rights-holders 'attorneys' time would be better spent going after web sites that publish lyrics and musical arrangements in their entirety.

If you have a bestseller on your hands and make millions, though, you're going to be putting yourself into a whole other class of rights violators.

Should not the artist or songwriter be pleased I love their work enough to include it?

Do not take it personally; it's business. Artists, unless they wrote their own songs or bought the rights, do not really have a claim to the lyrics. The songwriter does unless he or she sold them all. But the person you need to worry about most in this equation is typically a music publishing company. That company probably paid money for the rights to control publication of those lyrics you want. They're highly unlikely to get warm fuzzies because you want to use lyrics under their control. Even if they do, they have to pay people (such as the songwriter) for that usage.

Bottom line: Lyrics are intellectual property. They're worth money.

But is not this like free advertising for them?

In a way … maybe … if your story causes a bunch of people to rush out and buy the sheet music. But that's not likely. At best, it might cause readers to buy the song. That's covered under altogether different rights – performance and recording rights, etc. Someone, somewhere might be pleased. Depending on how things are set up, a little of that money might even trickle to the music publishing company. That prospect, however, is not likely to cause that company to let you use the lyrics for free.

So how much does it cost?

Basically, to use the song, you'll need to enter into a contract with the rights-holder. That company will tell you how much it wants for the usage you've described. A lot of factors go into the cost, including the portion of the song that you're intending to use. If you're only using a line or two, you may be looking at only a few cents per copy you make. Or it could be a lot higher. There generally are different fee schedules for hard-copy vice online use. You will not really be able to gauge the potential cost until you ask.

If all you want is a few lines from a single song, it's probably affordable. If you want to start each of thirty chapters with a line from a song, your cost and hassle will multiply. You're going to have to pay for each of those lines. Getting permission may entail going to not one, but several, different companies.

How do I get started?

Basically, you start the process by writing to the entity that manages the rights.

If you're an author in search of a traditional publisher, it will not do you much good to ask early. If, however, you plan to disseminate copies of the work while you're on your way to publication, the safest thing to do is to request permission from the rights-holder. Often, the company is willing to let you use the lyrics in this way for free. For example, I've been able to get permission to use sets of lyrics in online writing workshops for free because I was not making any money from the work and because only a few hundred people would visit the location where it was posted.

If you do not intend to share the work with others prior to publication, it's best to wait until you're a little closer to publication to request permission. In considering your request for rights, the company is going to want to know how many copies will be published and what format, as well as other things you can not tell them. You and your publisher can decide how to handle the request – if your publisher's even willing to deal with the issue at all. Some small publishers just do not have the resources to deal with the usage requests and the required follow-up. Your publisher may just tell you to scrap the lyrics.

If you're going the self-publishing route (hard-copy or e-book), then you should be in a position to give the rights-holder the details it wants.

How do I request permission?

Generally, you write to the music publisher. Try Googling the song name and the term "sheet music". There are lots of places that sell sheet music online for a few dollars, and you can download it right away. Often the find the the I answers the I need for this at Sheetmusicplus .

Check the details for the song to make sure you've got the right one. Sometimes the same song will end up in different arrangements, published by different companies. And sometimes multiple songs will share a title.

The sheet music will reveal the publisher and its address information and, in some cases, will even tell where to go for additional permissions. If it does not, the publishing company's webpage probably will.

If you're unable to determine the music publisher, you might find some hints by checking the songs in the databases of the entities that handle performance rights: ASCAP; BMI; and SESAC.

Once you get the music publisher's contact information, you can write to the company (some even have online forms) and tell what you want to do and what lyrics you want to use. Make sure you tell them what you want is a * print license *. Most of the publishing houses have guidelines on their sites for what they expect in a license request. After that, they'll probably write you back and / or send you a proposal contract with their terms. It's probably going to include a lot of details that make no sense to you, unless you're a lawyer; if you're not, you might want to talk to one about that contract so you understand what it is you're signing.

By the way, there are companies online who make all this easier, if you're willing to pay them to do it for you. They'll track down the info., Handle the paperwork, etc., but most authors I've talked to do not think those companies are worth what you'd pay.

What are my alternatives?

Ditch the poetry.

Write your own poem.

Find a poet or songwriter who's fighting to make a name for himself; he might be willing to let you use his material for free, if you give him proper credit.

If it's really, really got to be that song, then consider just giving its title (surrounded by double quote marks) and do not use the lyrics. Because there are only so many words that can be used, song titles can not be copyrighted except under really stringent conditions in which they can be treated as entities unto themselves – like if the song title comprises a whole line from the song or if it's a made-up word that the writer himself created or something like that. Usually, it's not so much copyright as trademark protection that comes into play there. But that's a really rare situation and so for general use, song titles are thought of as fair game – sort of like book titles. Still, the safest thing is to double-check (either through checking on the web or contacting the lyrics' rights-holder) to make sure your song name is not one of the few exceptions.

If you're just posting your writing on the web, without charging for it, then you have another option. Include the song name and a link to the song at a music-sharing site. I personally like IMEEM because it's reported to have contracts with the big recording labels so that all the appropriate people get paid when the songs are played. Plus the player has a link that your reader can follow to buy the song, so this really is a way for you to give free advertising to the song you love.

Imeem is free and ultra-easy to use. The page for a song gives you code that you can just drop onto your blog or webpage to play the music. Some of those are limited to a 30-second play, but that's usually enough to convey the essence of the music, remind the reader of the song, etc., and if the reader wants to hear the whole thing, he can always follow the link to Imeem.

A word of caution: I've only looked into IMEEM for noncommercial usage. I assume they mave different rules when it comes to works for which you're actually charging. If your readers have to pay to access your work, you'll need to contact IMEEM to find out whether your usage falls within their license terms.

Where can I get more information?

Out the links lands check at the bottom of this following article .

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Source by Dora McAlpin